Back to homepage


For Drug Combination Analysis

  • Chou, T.-C. and Talalay, P. A simple generalized equation for the analysis of multiple inhibtions of Michaelis-Menten kinetic systems. J. Biol. Chem. 252: 6438-6442, 1977.(Cited 199 times).
  • Chou, T.-C. and Talalay, P. Generalized equations for the analysis of inhibitors of Michaelis-Menten and higher order kinetic systems with two or more mutally exclusive and nonexclusive inhibitors. Europ. J. Biochem. 115: 207-216, 1981. (Cited 330 times).
  • Chou, T.-C. and Talalay, P. Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: The combined effects of multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors. Adv. Enz. Regul. 22: 27-55, 1984. (Cited in 4,477 scientific articles in 693 biomedical journals as of 12/31/2015).
  • Chou, T.-C. and Talalay, P. Applications of the median-effect principle for the assessment of low-dose risk of carcinogens and for the quantitation of synergism and antagonism of chemotherapeutic agents. In New Avenues in Developmental Cancer Chemotherapy, Bristol-Myers Symposium series, K.R. Harrap, and T.A. Connors Eds., pp. 37-64, New York, Academic Press, 1987.
  • Chou, T. C. (2010). Drug combination studies and their synergy quantification using the Chou-Talalay method. Cancer Research, 70(2), 440-446, 2010 (Cited 816 times in 237 different jornals)
  • Chou, T. C. Frequently asked questions in drug combinations and the mass-action law-based answers. Synergy 1:3-21,2014 (The inaugural issue)
  • Chou, T.-C., Rideout, D., Chou, J. and Bertino, J.R. Chemotherapeutic synergism, potentiation and antagonism. In Encyclopedia of Human Biology, Dulbecco, R. (Ed), Academic Press, vol. 2, pp. 371-379, 1991.
  • Chou, T.-C. The median-effect principle and the combination index for quantization of synergism and antagonism. In Synergism and antagonism in chemotherapy (Chou, T.-C. and Rideout, D.C., eds.) pp. 61-102, Academic Press, San Diego, 1991. (Cited 353 times)
  • Chou, T.-C., Motzer, R.J., Tong, Y. and Bosi, G.J. Computerized quantitation of synergism and antagonism of taxol, topotecan, and cisplatin against teratocarcinoma cell growth: A rational approach to clinical protocol design. J. Nat’l Cancer Inst. 86: 1517-1524, 1994. (Highlighted paper with an editorial) (Sample crude data analysis available).(Cited 441 times).
  • Bertino, J.R. and Chou, T.-C. Chemotherapy: Synergism and Antagonism. In Encyclopedia of Cancer, Bertino, J.R. Vol.1. pp. 368-79. Academic Press, San Diego, 1997.
  • Chou, T.-C. Theoretical Basis, Experimental Design, and Computerized Simulation of Synergism and Antagonism in Drug Combination Studies. Pharmacological Reviews 58:621-681, 2006 and 128 pages of Appendix for Examples of Computer Printouts. (Doi: 10.1124/pr.58.3.10). Free Web Link: (Cited 1,437 times in 404 journals).
  • Chou, T.-C. What is synergy? The Scientist 21: No. 8, p. 15, 2007. (An Open Forum)
  • Chou, T.-C. Preclinical versus clinical drug combination studies. Leukemia & Lymphoma 49: 2059-2080, 2008. (Clinical Discussions)( Sample Computer Printouts for Drug Combinations for 2 and 3 Drugs in vitro)(Cited 93 times)
  • Chou, T.-C. The mass-action law based GPS concept for bio-informatics. Nature Precedings (npre.2008.2064-2); July 22, 2008. Available free at [For Science, Natural Law, Algorithms, Ancient Philosophy and Computer Simulation ]
  • Baba T.W, Liska V, Chou TC, Ruprecht RM, etal. Human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies of the IgG1 subtype protect against mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection.Nat Med. 6:200-206,2000 (Cited 840 times)